Gamble discussed the following scenarios along with possible treatments:
- Grain overload or protein-rich alfalfa diet. This can cause excessive fermentation of carbohydrates, with the end result being vasoconstriction in the foot. Treatment would take the form of oiling the horse via a nasogastric tube and maintaining it on low doses of Banamine.
- Retained placenta. If the placenta is retained three to four hours after a mare gives birth, a veterinarian should be called to remove it, flush the uterus, and initiate treatment that would include the administration of antibiotics, cortisone, and Banamine.
- Colic. "Any colic," said Gamble, "that has progressed and has allowed gut absorption of toxins should prompt the owner to call a veterinarian for the sake of treating the colic and preventing founder."
- Foot trauma. This can take the form of acute trauma--such as a stone bruise or being ridden or worked on a hard surface--or chronic trauma--such as that which occurs in racing and other competitive events. In either case, the trauma can result in compromised blood flow to the distal limb. Improper trimming, such as a sudden change in angle or quicking, also can bring on trauma that can result in laminitis. Treatment includes administering analgesics, padding the foot, paring out a sole abscess, and allowing proper drainage. Proper trimming and shoeing are musts.